Political parties are essential for parliamentary democracy, the form of government that prevails in most European states. The results are theorised and implications for future research are discussed. Due to limited opportunities for attention from the national media and focus on local issues, local protests are not featured in the national media, which is crucial for national protest actions. Still, the field lacks systematic cross-case assessments of such relationships. Using original data, it explores how power is exercised within party organisations and their respective parliamentary groups.
Paradoxically the boundaries of knowledge can serve their very transgression, but when including knowledge from across the border it has to be done on its own terms.
The problematique of this book concerns the lenses through which informality has been constituted, studied and acted upon as an empirical phenomenon. Some states create geographical imaginaries that envision the homeland as coherent and good, and the spaces of Others as disordered, dangerous and therefore legitimate objects of violence. But how have parties adapted to modern society — not least a new layer of political decision-making in the EU? While these minorities to some extent operate like a majority within their federal state or province, this paper explores how constitutionally bilingual Finland, having a Swedish-speaking non-territorial minority with the same linguistic rights as the majority, governs immigrant integration. The findings carry implications for research on the transnationalization of politics, in particular transnational party and elite networks, and the EU and its constitutionalization. This article discusses the role that the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC has played in this development and considers whether this has restrained Sweden's ability to act.